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The ACF also works in close collaboration with pediatricians, teachers, and psychologists to enhance knowledge, training, and high-quality publications, stated Berisha. Lidija Krstevska Dojcinovska discussed the laws and policies for children with disabilities in Macedonia across the areas of education, social protection, and health care.

According to Dojcinovska, while there is no specific law on inclusive education in Macedonia, existing laws contain the principles that support it. The Law on Primary Education provides the right for children with developmental delays and disabilities to enroll in mainstream education or attend special schools.

Prior to this law in , children with these needs had to be enrolled in special schools. The National Strategy for the Development of Education — The Parliament of the Republic of Macedonia, aimed to reduce discrimination in schools and increase support for children with disabilities in mainstream schools, as did the National Strategy for Deinstitutionalization Government of FYR Macedonia, The National Strategy for Equalization of the Rights of People with Disabilities of — mandates the employment of special educators in mainstream schools along with continuous teacher training Government of FYR Macedonia, Dojcinovska said that every document states that children with disabilities have 1 the same right to quality education as children without disabilities; 2 the right to choose and have an inclusive environment; and 3 are entitled to specific resources and expertise to satisfy their educational needs.

Yet, these policies have not been translated on the ground, said Dojcinovska. While the legal framework for inclusive education is. Moreover, teachers do not receive enough training to work with these special needs students, and there is insufficient funding to develop services at the central and local levels. In terms of health care and social protection, Dojcinovska said that laws in Macedonia provide for the early identification of children with disabilities, but that the country does not have an adequate strategy for early intervention.

She did note that Macedonia has centers for social work; development counseling offices to monitor children born at risk of developing a developmental delay or disability; and speech therapists, psychologists, and physical therapists to diagnose and treat certain conditions. Dojcinovska stated that Macedonia faces several challenges including the early identification of delays and disabilities, which often occurs very late, and is unaccompanied by support services. Parents also avoid screenings so their child is not labeled, said Dojcinovska.

There are challenges in the diagnostic and treatment process as well, she explained, where there is still limited knowledge about the treatment of some conditions such as autism, and professionals sometimes resort to disease classification rather than needs assessment. Finally, she said that more financial resources are needed for family support and the development of services at the local level. According to Zorcec, Macedonia has experienced a rapid increase in the number of children with autism, and there are insufficient resources available to support these children and their families.


Yet there are some positive aspects in this situation, said Zorcec, including raised awareness about autism, some inclusion of children with autism in mainstream education, and plans to open a center for autism diagnosis. According to Buchukuri, several large institutions were closed from to , resulting in a reduction in the number of children in institutionalized care from 5, to The main pillars of the model are early detection, surveillance, and referral. Early childhood education and ECI are managed by the Ministry of Labor, Health, and Social Affairs, and the transition to preschool institutions and educational services is spearheaded by the Ministry of Science and Education.

Buchukuri highlighted several successes including the development and implementation of several ECI services in the capital, Tbilisi, and other regions of Georgia. She also indicated Georgia has a sustainable funding system and a joint vision from several ministries regarding early child development, which has resulted in an annual increase in the number of children involved in ECI programs.

Through the home visiting program that began in the region in , Schwethelm said UNICEF is promoting the idea of comprehensive development of all young children and a continuum of care through ongoing case management, as presented by Krishnamurthy, Hix-Small, and Wertlieb.

Content for the program is steeped in early child develop-. Modules focus on developmental difficulties, attachment, stigma and discrimination, cross-sectorial coordination, and child maltreatment, among others. Schwethelm stated that the home visiting service has been evaluated in Bosnia and Herzegovina and results showed a positive effect on child outcomes and parent—child relationships Yousafzai and Rasheed, Together with the Developmental Pediatrics Department of Ankara University, UNICEF has provided orientation training on developmental pediatrics and family-centered services and continued support to professionals in 10 countries of the region.

Shih summarized discussions from the breakout group on children with developmental delays and disabilities. In this breakout group, participants heard from Mariana Nikolova, another representative of the Karin Dom Foundation in Bulgaria. According to her, oftentimes governments or funders provide financial support for programs without forethought on how to continue services. For example, she said that in one area, funds were provided to train support personnel and therapists, but there was no job security for them once trained.

After 3 months, they had to leave their positions. This reality disincentivizes prospective participants, she said.

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Another participant discussed World Bank investments and how money from the bank is given to local governments for disbursement. Yet there is no agreement within the government in terms of how to allocate resources to engender the outcomes intended by the funders. During the discussion, Shih said participants highlighted how definitions of early childhood intervention and disability may vary, underscoring the need for a greater understanding of context for programming. Part of the context to be considered includes leadership, evaluation, and center- versus family-based models of intervention.

Participants discussed the need for vertical and horizontal alignment of leadership requiring top-down or bottom-up approaches as well as cross-sector transfers of skills and lessons learned.

Albania struck by 5.6-magnitude earthquake, injuring at least 37

Some participants noted that oftentimes programs and services do not have a built-in evaluation component. These participants remarked that strategic planners are removed from realities on the. Finally, several participants thought a center-based model would not reach all children living in families.

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Instead, a few participants said implementers should consider a community-based, capacity-building approach as they can be more cost-effective, encourage commitment at all levels as well as local ownership of programs, and empower families and community stakeholders. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals for strive for a world that is "just, equitable, and inclusive," in which everyone receives care, education, and opportunities to thrive. Yet many children are living on the margins of society, face multiple disadvantages, and are excluded from full participation in all that life has to offer.

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  6. To examine the science, economics, and politics of investing in the health, education, nutrition, and social protection of children at the margins, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop in Prague, Czech Republic in November Held in partnership with the Open Society Foundations and the International Step by Step Association, the workshop convened a diverse group of stakeholders from around the world for 2 days of discussion. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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    Page 36 Share Cite. In his article Birth goes on to explore the challenges of the representation of coevalness in anthropology, arguing for a focus on the temporal frames research subjects themselves use to forge coevalness with the ethnographer. In this article I pay due respect to these insights in my focus on issues of time and temporality as a methodological tool in our research practice: fieldwork.

    In many respects time has always been a crucial aspect of anthropological fieldwork.

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    The qualitative method of participating in the everyday life that takes place in a given society throughout a longer period of time is a hallmark of this science Dresch and James However besides demarcating the period of fieldwork, time can in fact be a central tool during the course of research. In this article I consider a few ways in which aspects of time and temporality can be used methodologically in observation and participation.

    In doing so, I make use of two understandings of time. One concerns time seen objectively as history and change, that is, time passing by, leaving various signs of alteration.


    The other concerns time as subjective experience. I refer to this as temporality which, following Appadurai, I take to be "the way time is" Appadurai My approach to temporality is thus phenomenological in the sense that my interest lies in the way time is experienced locally. One of the fields in which this methodological focus can be particularly useful is in societies that have undergone various forms of social change. As Verdery has noted, one of the things that is potentially altered in such situations is the understanding of time.

    This bears resemblance to Kracauer's notion of "periods disintegrating"; Kracauer Such a situation, Verdery continues, was immanently present in many countries after the breakup of the Soviet Union. The Soviet system, as well as socialist regimes in the Balkans, was based on a vision of a road towards a communist future - a vision dramatically altered when the Soviet Union disintegrated in As Yurchak has aptly phrased it, "everything was forever until it was no more". It is in this empirical context that I take my point of departure.

    What follows draws on my fieldwork experiences from the Republic of Georgia in , as well as my experience of living in a small town in the Albanian mountains where my wife was doing fieldwork in the autumn of The article falls into two main parts considering observation and participation respectively, and in relation to these, time as history and time as a social and subjective experience.